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scrapy爬取mzitu美女图片

龙行    Python    2019-8-31    54    0评论    百度未收录

QQ截图20190831234304.png

scrapy爬取的美女图片,demo保存下吧

先设置item

items.py

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Define here the models for your scraped items
#
# See documentation in:
# https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/items.html

import scrapy


class MeizituItem(scrapy.Item):
    # define the fields for your item here like:
    img_url = scrapy.Field()
    title = scrapy.Field()
    pass

spider代码文件

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import scrapy
from scrapy.http import Request
from meizitu.items import MeizituItem


class MeiziSpider(scrapy.Spider):
    name = 'meizi'
    allowed_domains = ['mzitu.com']
    start_urls = ['https://www.mzitu.com/all/']

    def parse(self, response):
        # 取得所有套图地址
        hxs = response.xpath('//p[contains(@class,"url")]/a/@href').extract()
        for url in hxs:
            yield Request(url=url, callback=self.fenye)

    def fenye(self, response):
        # 取得图片路径和标题
        url = response.url
        item = MeizituItem()
        item['img_url'] = response.xpath('//div[@class="main-image"]//img/@src').extract()
        item['title'] = response.xpath('//div[@class="main-image"]//img/@alt').extract_first().strip()
        yield item
        # 取得下方导航条页面路径
        xhs = response.xpath('//div[@class="pagenavi"]/a[6]/@href').extract()
        for url in xhs:
            yield Request(url=url, callback=self.fenye)
            pass

pipelines.py

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Define your item pipelines here
#
# Don't forget to add your pipeline to the ITEM_PIPELINES setting
# See: https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/item-pipeline.html
import scrapy
from scrapy.pipelines.images import ImagesPipeline
from scrapy.exceptions import DropItem
import requests, os
base_path = 'D:\mzitu'

# 分文件下载
class MzituPipeline(object):

    def process_item(self, item, spider):
        # print(item['title'],item['img_url'])
        title = item['title']
        url = str(item['img_url'])
        print(url)
        if os.path.exists(os.path.join(base_path, item['title'])):
            pass
        else:
            os.makedirs(os.path.join(base_path, item['title']))
        dict = url.rsplit('/', maxsplit=1)
        file_name = os.path.join(base_path, title, dict[1])

        if os.path.exists(file_name):
            pass
        else:
            response = requests.get(url=url, headers={'Referer': 'http://www.mzitu.com/net/'})
            print('正在下载', title, '......')
            with open(file_name, 'wb') as f:
                f.write(response.content)
            print('下载完成.')
        raise DropItem()


class ImagespiderPipeline(ImagesPipeline):
    # IMAGES_STORE = 'D:\mzitu'  settings.py 图片保存路劲
    default_headers = {
        'accept': 'image/webp,image/*,*/*;q=0.8',
        'accept-encoding': 'gzip, deflate, sdch, br',
        'accept-language': 'zh-CN,zh;q=0.8,en;q=0.6',
        'cookie': 'bid=yQdC/AzTaCw',
        'referer': 'https://www.mzitu.com/189982',
        'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/55.0.2883.87 Safari/537.36'
    }

    def get_media_requests(self, item, info):
        # 循环每一张图片地址下载,若传过来的不是集合则无需循环直接yield
        print(item)

        for image_url in item['img_url']:
            self.default_headers['referer'] = image_url
            yield scrapy.Request(image_url,
                                 # meta={'item': item},
                                 headers=self.default_headers)

    # 如果重写这个函数,name为文件名分目录下载
    # def file_path(self, request, response=None, info=None):
    #     # 提取url前面名称作为图片名。
    #     image_guid = request.url.split('/')[-1]  #得到图片后缀
    #     # 接收上面meta传递过来的图片名称
    #     item = request.meta['item']
    #     # 过滤windows字符串,不经过这么一个步骤,你会发现有乱码或无法下载
    #     # name = re.sub(r'[?\\*|“<>:/]', '', name)
    #     title = item['title']
    #     # 分文件夹存储的关键:{0}对应着name;{1}对应着image_guid
    #     filename = u'{0}/{1}'.format(title, image_guid)
    #     return filename

settings.py配置文件

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Scrapy settings for meizitu project
#
# For simplicity, this file contains only settings considered important or
# commonly used. You can find more settings consulting the documentation:
#
#     https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/settings.html
#     https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html
#     https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html

BOT_NAME = 'meizitu'

SPIDER_MODULES = ['meizitu.spiders']
NEWSPIDER_MODULE = 'meizitu.spiders'


# Crawl responsibly by identifying yourself (and your website) on the user-agent
#USER_AGENT = 'meizitu (+http://www.yourdomain.com)'

# Obey robots.txt rules
ROBOTSTXT_OBEY = False

# Configure maximum concurrent requests performed by Scrapy (default: 16)
#CONCURRENT_REQUESTS = 32

# Configure a delay for requests for the same website (default: 0)
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/settings.html#download-delay
# See also autothrottle settings and docs
DOWNLOAD_DELAY = 1
# The download delay setting will honor only one of:
#CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_DOMAIN = 16
#CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_IP = 16

# Disable cookies (enabled by default)
#COOKIES_ENABLED = False

# Disable Telnet Console (enabled by default)
#TELNETCONSOLE_ENABLED = False

# Override the default request headers:
#DEFAULT_REQUEST_HEADERS = {
#   'Accept': 'text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8',
#   'Accept-Language': 'en',
#}

# Enable or disable spider middlewares
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html
#SPIDER_MIDDLEWARES = {
#    'meizitu.middlewares.MeizituSpiderMiddleware': 543,
#}

# Enable or disable downloader middlewares
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html
DOWNLOADER_MIDDLEWARES = {
   'meizitu.middlewares.UserAgentDownloadMiddleWare': 543,
}

# Enable or disable extensions
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/extensions.html
#EXTENSIONS = {
#    'scrapy.extensions.telnet.TelnetConsole': None,
#}

# Configure item pipelines
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/item-pipeline.html
ITEM_PIPELINES = {
   'meizitu.pipelines.ImagespiderPipeline': 300,
}
IMAGES_STORE = 'D:\mzitu'
HTTPERROR_ALLOWED_CODES = [301]
# Enable and configure the AutoThrottle extension (disabled by default)
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/autothrottle.html
#AUTOTHROTTLE_ENABLED = True
# The initial download delay
#AUTOTHROTTLE_START_DELAY = 5
# The maximum download delay to be set in case of high latencies
#AUTOTHROTTLE_MAX_DELAY = 60
# The average number of requests Scrapy should be sending in parallel to
# each remote server
#AUTOTHROTTLE_TARGET_CONCURRENCY = 1.0
# Enable showing throttling stats for every response received:
#AUTOTHROTTLE_DEBUG = False

# Enable and configure HTTP caching (disabled by default)
# See https://docs.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html#httpcache-middleware-settings
#HTTPCACHE_ENABLED = True
#HTTPCACHE_EXPIRATION_SECS = 0
#HTTPCACHE_DIR = 'httpcache'
#HTTPCACHE_IGNORE_HTTP_CODES = []
#HTTPCACHE_STORAGE = 'scrapy.extensions.httpcache.FilesystemCacheStorage'
DEPTH_LIMIT = 3
# DUPEFILTER_CLASS = 'scrapy.dupefilter.RFPDupeFilter'
# DUPEFILTER_DEBUG = False

# 13. 爬虫允许的最大深度,可以通过meta查看当前深度;0表示无深度
# DEPTH_LIMIT = 3

# 14. 爬取时,0表示深度优先Lifo(默认);1表示广度优先FiFo

# 后进先出,深度优先
# DEPTH_PRIORITY = 0
# SCHEDULER_DISK_QUEUE = 'scrapy.squeue.PickleLifoDiskQueue'
# SCHEDULER_MEMORY_QUEUE = 'scrapy.squeue.LifoMemoryQueue'
# 先进先出,广度优先

# DEPTH_PRIORITY = 1
# SCHEDULER_DISK_QUEUE = 'scrapy.squeue.PickleFifoDiskQueue'
# SCHEDULER_MEMORY_QUEUE = 'scrapy.squeue.FifoMemoryQueue'

# 15. 调度器队列
# SCHEDULER = 'scrapy.core.scheduler.Scheduler'
# from scrapy.core.scheduler import Scheduler


# 16. 访问URL去重
# DUPEFILTER_CLASS = 'step8_king.duplication.RepeatUrl'


# Enable and configure the AutoThrottle extension (disabled by default)
# See http://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/autothrottle.html
"""
17. 自动限速算法
    from scrapy.contrib.throttle import AutoThrottle
    自动限速设置
    1. 获取最小延迟 DOWNLOAD_DELAY
    2. 获取最大延迟 AUTOTHROTTLE_MAX_DELAY
    3. 设置初始下载延迟 AUTOTHROTTLE_START_DELAY
    4. 当请求下载完成后,获取其"连接"时间 latency,即:请求连接到接受到响应头之间的时间
    5. 用于计算的... AUTOTHROTTLE_TARGET_CONCURRENCY
    target_delay = latency / self.target_concurrency
    new_delay = (slot.delay + target_delay) / 2.0 # 表示上一次的延迟时间
    new_delay = max(target_delay, new_delay)
    new_delay = min(max(self.mindelay, new_delay), self.maxdelay)
    slot.delay = new_delay
"""

# 开始自动限速
# AUTOTHROTTLE_ENABLED = True
# The initial download delay
# 初始下载延迟
# AUTOTHROTTLE_START_DELAY = 5
# The maximum download delay to be set in case of high latencies
# 最大下载延迟
# AUTOTHROTTLE_MAX_DELAY = 10
# The average number of requests Scrapy should be sending in parallel to each remote server
# 平均每秒并发数
# AUTOTHROTTLE_TARGET_CONCURRENCY = 1.0

# Enable showing throttling stats for every response received:
# 是否显示
# AUTOTHROTTLE_DEBUG = True

# Enable and configure HTTP caching (disabled by default)
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html#httpcache-middleware-settings


"""
18. 启用缓存
    目的用于将已经发送的请求或相应缓存下来,以便以后使用

    from scrapy.downloadermiddlewares.httpcache import HttpCacheMiddleware
    from scrapy.extensions.httpcache import DummyPolicy
    from scrapy.extensions.httpcache import FilesystemCacheStorage
"""
# 是否启用缓存策略
# HTTPCACHE_ENABLED = True

# 缓存策略:所有请求均缓存,下次在请求直接访问原来的缓存即可
# HTTPCACHE_POLICY = "scrapy.extensions.httpcache.DummyPolicy"
# 缓存策略:根据Http响应头:Cache-Control、Last-Modified 等进行缓存的策略
# HTTPCACHE_POLICY = "scrapy.extensions.httpcache.RFC2616Policy"

# 缓存超时时间
# HTTPCACHE_EXPIRATION_SECS = 0

# 缓存保存路径
# HTTPCACHE_DIR = 'httpcache'

# 缓存忽略的Http状态码
# HTTPCACHE_IGNORE_HTTP_CODES = []

# 缓存存储的插件
# HTTPCACHE_STORAGE = 'scrapy.extensions.httpcache.FilesystemCacheStorage'


"""
19. 代理,需要在环境变量中设置
    from scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpproxy import HttpProxyMiddleware

    方式一:使用默认
        os.environ
        {
            http_proxy:http://root:woshiniba@192.168.11.11:9999/
            https_proxy:http://192.168.11.11:9999/
        }
    方式二:使用自定义下载中间件

    def to_bytes(text, encoding=None, errors='strict'):
        if isinstance(text, bytes):
            return text
        if not isinstance(text, six.string_types):
            raise TypeError('to_bytes must receive a unicode, str or bytes '
                            'object, got %s' % type(text).__name__)
        if encoding is None:
            encoding = 'utf-8'
        return text.encode(encoding, errors)

    class ProxyMiddleware(object):
        def process_request(self, request, spider):
            PROXIES = [
                {'ip_port': '111.11.228.75:80', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '120.198.243.22:80', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '111.8.60.9:8123', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '101.71.27.120:80', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '122.96.59.104:80', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '122.224.249.122:8088', 'user_pass': ''},
            ]
            proxy = random.choice(PROXIES)
            if proxy['user_pass'] is not None:
                request.meta['proxy'] = to_bytes("http://%s" % proxy['ip_port'])
                encoded_user_pass = base64.encodestring(to_bytes(proxy['user_pass']))
                request.headers['Proxy-Authorization'] = to_bytes('Basic ' + encoded_user_pass)
                print "**************ProxyMiddleware have pass************" + proxy['ip_port']
            else:
                print "**************ProxyMiddleware no pass************" + proxy['ip_port']
                request.meta['proxy'] = to_bytes("http://%s" % proxy['ip_port'])

    DOWNLOADER_MIDDLEWARES = {
       'step8_king.middlewares.ProxyMiddleware': 500,
    }

"""

"""
20. Https访问
    Https访问时有两种情况:
    1. 要爬取网站使用的可信任证书(默认支持)
        DOWNLOADER_HTTPCLIENTFACTORY = "scrapy.core.downloader.webclient.ScrapyHTTPClientFactory"
        DOWNLOADER_CLIENTCONTEXTFACTORY = "scrapy.core.downloader.contextfactory.ScrapyClientContextFactory"

    2. 要爬取网站使用的自定义证书
        DOWNLOADER_HTTPCLIENTFACTORY = "scrapy.core.downloader.webclient.ScrapyHTTPClientFactory"
        DOWNLOADER_CLIENTCONTEXTFACTORY = "step8_king.https.MySSLFactory"

        # https.py
        from scrapy.core.downloader.contextfactory import ScrapyClientContextFactory
        from twisted.internet.ssl import (optionsForClientTLS, CertificateOptions, PrivateCertificate)

        class MySSLFactory(ScrapyClientContextFactory):
            def getCertificateOptions(self):
                from OpenSSL import crypto
                v1 = crypto.load_privatekey(crypto.FILETYPE_PEM, open('/Users/wupeiqi/client.key.unsecure', mode='r').read())
                v2 = crypto.load_certificate(crypto.FILETYPE_PEM, open('/Users/wupeiqi/client.pem', mode='r').read())
                return CertificateOptions(
                    privateKey=v1,  # pKey对象
                    certificate=v2,  # X509对象
                    verify=False,
                    method=getattr(self, 'method', getattr(self, '_ssl_method', None))
                )
    其他:
        相关类
            scrapy.core.downloader.handlers.http.HttpDownloadHandler
            scrapy.core.downloader.webclient.ScrapyHTTPClientFactory
            scrapy.core.downloader.contextfactory.ScrapyClientContextFactory
        相关配置
            DOWNLOADER_HTTPCLIENTFACTORY
            DOWNLOADER_CLIENTCONTEXTFACTORY

"""

"""
21. 爬虫中间件
    class SpiderMiddleware(object):

        def process_spider_input(self,response, spider):
            '''
            下载完成,执行,然后交给parse处理
            :param response: 
            :param spider: 
            :return: 
            '''
            pass

        def process_spider_output(self,response, result, spider):
            '''
            spider处理完成,返回时调用
            :param response:
            :param result:
            :param spider:
            :return: 必须返回包含 Request 或 Item 对象的可迭代对象(iterable)
            '''
            return result

        def process_spider_exception(self,response, exception, spider):
            '''
            异常调用
            :param response:
            :param exception:
            :param spider:
            :return: None,继续交给后续中间件处理异常;含 Response 或 Item 的可迭代对象(iterable),交给调度器或pipeline
            '''
            return None


        def process_start_requests(self,start_requests, spider):
            '''
            爬虫启动时调用
            :param start_requests:
            :param spider:
            :return: 包含 Request 对象的可迭代对象
            '''
            return start_requests

    内置爬虫中间件:
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.httperror.HttpErrorMiddleware': 50,
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.offsite.OffsiteMiddleware': 500,
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.referer.RefererMiddleware': 700,
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.urllength.UrlLengthMiddleware': 800,
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.depth.DepthMiddleware': 900,

"""
# from scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.referer import RefererMiddleware
# Enable or disable spider middlewares
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html
SPIDER_MIDDLEWARES = {
    # 'step8_king.middlewares.SpiderMiddleware': 543,
}

"""
22. 下载中间件
    class DownMiddleware1(object):
        def process_request(self, request, spider):
            '''
            请求需要被下载时,经过所有下载器中间件的process_request调用
            :param request:
            :param spider:
            :return:
                None,继续后续中间件去下载;
                Response对象,停止process_request的执行,开始执行process_response
                Request对象,停止中间件的执行,将Request重新调度器
                raise IgnoreRequest异常,停止process_request的执行,开始执行process_exception
            '''
            pass



        def process_response(self, request, response, spider):
            '''
            spider处理完成,返回时调用
            :param response:
            :param result:
            :param spider:
            :return:
                Response 对象:转交给其他中间件process_response
                Request 对象:停止中间件,request会被重新调度下载
                raise IgnoreRequest 异常:调用Request.errback
            '''
            print('response1')
            return response

        def process_exception(self, request, exception, spider):
            '''
            当下载处理器(download handler)或 process_request() (下载中间件)抛出异常
            :param response:
            :param exception:
            :param spider:
            :return:
                None:继续交给后续中间件处理异常;
                Response对象:停止后续process_exception方法
                Request对象:停止中间件,request将会被重新调用下载
            '''
            return None


    默认下载中间件
    {
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.robotstxt.RobotsTxtMiddleware': 100,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpauth.HttpAuthMiddleware': 300,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.downloadtimeout.DownloadTimeoutMiddleware': 350,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.useragent.UserAgentMiddleware': 400,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.retry.RetryMiddleware': 500,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.defaultheaders.DefaultHeadersMiddleware': 550,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.redirect.MetaRefreshMiddleware': 580,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpcompression.HttpCompressionMiddleware': 590,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.redirect.RedirectMiddleware': 600,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.cookies.CookiesMiddleware': 700,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpproxy.HttpProxyMiddleware': 750,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.chunked.ChunkedTransferMiddleware': 830,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.stats.DownloaderStats': 850,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpcache.HttpCacheMiddleware': 900,
    }

"""
# from scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpauth import HttpAuthMiddleware
# Enable or disable downloader middlewares
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html
# DOWNLOADER_MIDDLEWARES = {
#    'step8_king.middlewares.DownMiddleware1': 100,
#    'step8_king.middlewares.DownMiddleware2': 500,
# }

github地址: https://github.com/792532971/scrapy-mzitu

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